How to lazy load images in ListView in Android? [Answered]

Query:

I am using a ListView to display some images and captions associated with those images. I am getting the images from the Internet. Is there a way to lazy load images so while the text displays, the UI is not blocked and images are displayed as they are downloaded?

The total number of images is not fixed.

How to lazy load images in ListView in Android? Answer #1:

Here’s what I created to hold the images that my app is currently displaying. Please note that the “Log” object in use here is my custom wrapper around the final Log class inside Android.

package com.wilson.android.library;

/*
 Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
distributed with this work for additional information
regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
software distributed under the License is distributed on an
"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
specific language governing permissions and limitations
under the License.
*/
import java.io.IOException;

public class DrawableManager {
    private final Map<String, Drawable> drawableMap;

    public DrawableManager() {
        drawableMap = new HashMap<String, Drawable>();
    }

    public Drawable fetchDrawable(String urlString) {
        if (drawableMap.containsKey(urlString)) {
            return drawableMap.get(urlString);
        }

        Log.d(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "image url:" + urlString);
        try {
            InputStream is = fetch(urlString);
            Drawable drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(is, "src");


            if (drawable != null) {
                drawableMap.put(urlString, drawable);
                Log.d(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "got a thumbnail drawable: " + drawable.getBounds() + ", "
                        + drawable.getIntrinsicHeight() + "," + drawable.getIntrinsicWidth() + ", "
                        + drawable.getMinimumHeight() + "," + drawable.getMinimumWidth());
            } else {
              Log.w(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "could not get thumbnail");
            }

            return drawable;
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            Log.e(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "fetchDrawable failed", e);
            return null;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            Log.e(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "fetchDrawable failed", e);
            return null;
        }
    }

    public void fetchDrawableOnThread(final String urlString, final ImageView imageView) {
        if (drawableMap.containsKey(urlString)) {
            imageView.setImageDrawable(drawableMap.get(urlString));
        }

        final Handler handler = new Handler() {
            @Override
            public void handleMessage(Message message) {
                imageView.setImageDrawable((Drawable) message.obj);
            }
        };

        Thread thread = new Thread() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                //TODO : set imageView to a "pending" image
                Drawable drawable = fetchDrawable(urlString);
                Message message = handler.obtainMessage(1, drawable);
                handler.sendMessage(message);
            }
        };
        thread.start();
    }

    private InputStream fetch(String urlString) throws MalformedURLException, IOException {
        DefaultHttpClient httpClient = new DefaultHttpClient();
        HttpGet request = new HttpGet(urlString);
        HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(request);
        return response.getEntity().getContent();
    }
}

Answer #2:

I made a simple demo of a lazy list (located at GitHub) with images.

Basic Usage

ImageLoader imageLoader=new ImageLoader(context); ...
imageLoader.DisplayImage(url, imageView); 

Don’t forget to add the following permissions to your AndroidManifest.xml:

 <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"/>
 <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/> Please

create only one instance of ImageLoader and reuse it all around your application. This way image caching will be much more efficient.

It may be helpful to somebody. It downloads images in the background thread. Images are being cached on an SD card and in memory. The cache implementation is very simple and is just enough for the demo. I decode images with inSampleSize to reduce memory consumption. I also try to handle recycled views correctly.

Alt text

Answer #3:

I recommend open source instrument Universal Image Loader. It is originally based on Fedor Vlasov’s project LazyList and has been vastly improved since then.

  • Multithread image loading
  • Possibility of wide tuning ImageLoader’s configuration (thread executors, downloader, decoder, memory and disc cache, display image options, and others)
  • Possibility of image caching in memory and/or on the device’s file system (or SD card)
  • Possibility to “listen” loading process
  • Possibility to customize every display image call with separated options
  • Widget support
  • Android 2.0+ support

Answer #4:

Multithreading For Performance, a tutorial by Gilles Debunne.

This is from the Android Developers Blog. The suggested code uses:

  • AsyncTasks.
  • A hard, limited size, FIFO cache.
  • A soft, easily garbage collect-ed cache.
  • placeholder Drawable while you download.
enter image description here

Answer #5:

Update: Note that this answer is pretty ineffective now. The Garbage Collector acts aggressively on SoftReference and WeakReference, so this code is NOT suitable for new apps. (Instead, try libraries like Universal Image Loader suggested in other answers.)

Thanks to James for the code, and Bao-Long for the suggestion of using SoftReference. I implemented the SoftReference changes on James’ code. Unfortunately, SoftReferences caused my images to be garbage collected too quickly. In my case, it was fine without the SoftReference stuff, because my list size is limited and my images are small.

There’s a discussion from a year ago regarding the SoftReferences on google groups: link to thread. As a solution to the too-early garbage collection, they suggest the possibility of manually setting the VM heap size using dalvik.system.VMRuntime.setMinimumHeapSize(), which is not very attractive to me.

public DrawableManager() {
    drawableMap = new HashMap<String, SoftReference<Drawable>>();
}

public Drawable fetchDrawable(String urlString) {
    SoftReference<Drawable> drawableRef = drawableMap.get(urlString);
    if (drawableRef != null) {
        Drawable drawable = drawableRef.get();
        if (drawable != null)
            return drawable;
        // Reference has expired so remove the key from drawableMap
        drawableMap.remove(urlString);
    }

    if (Constants.LOGGING) Log.d(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "image url:" + urlString);
    try {
        InputStream is = fetch(urlString);
        Drawable drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(is, "src");
        drawableRef = new SoftReference<Drawable>(drawable);
        drawableMap.put(urlString, drawableRef);
        if (Constants.LOGGING) Log.d(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "got a thumbnail drawable: " + drawable.getBounds() + ", "
                + drawable.getIntrinsicHeight() + "," + drawable.getIntrinsicWidth() + ", "
                + drawable.getMinimumHeight() + "," + drawable.getMinimumWidth());
        return drawableRef.get();
    } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
        if (Constants.LOGGING) Log.e(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "fetchDrawable failed", e);
        return null;
    } catch (IOException e) {
        if (Constants.LOGGING) Log.e(this.getClass().getSimpleName(), "fetchDrawable failed", e);
        return null;
    }
}

public void fetchDrawableOnThread(final String urlString, final ImageView imageView) {
    SoftReference<Drawable> drawableRef = drawableMap.get(urlString);
    if (drawableRef != null) {
        Drawable drawable = drawableRef.get();
        if (drawable != null) {
            imageView.setImageDrawable(drawableRef.get());
            return;
        }
        // Reference has expired so remove the key from drawableMap
        drawableMap.remove(urlString);
    }

    final Handler handler = new Handler() {
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message message) {
            imageView.setImageDrawable((Drawable) message.obj);
        }
    };

    Thread thread = new Thread() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            //TODO : set imageView to a "pending" image
            Drawable drawable = fetchDrawable(urlString);
            Message message = handler.obtainMessage(1, drawable);
            handler.sendMessage(message);
        }
    };
    thread.start();
}

Lazy load images in ListView in Android- Answer #6:

Picasso

Use Jake Wharton’s Picasso Library. (A Perfect ImageLoading Library from the developer of ActionBarSherlock)

A powerful image downloading and caching library for Android.

Images add much-needed context and visual flair to Android applications. Picasso allows for hassle-free image loading in your application—often in one line of code!

Picasso.with(context).load("http://i.imgur.com/DvpvklR.png").into(imageView);

Many common pitfalls of image loading on Android are handled automatically by Picasso:

Handling ImageView recycling and download cancellation in an adapter. Complex image transformations with minimal memory use. Automatic memory and disk caching.

Picasso Jake Wharton’s Library

Glide

Glide is a fast and efficient open-source media management framework for Android that wraps media decoding, memory and disk caching, and resource pooling into a simple and easy-to-use interface.

Glide supports fetching, decoding, and displaying video stills, images, and animated GIFs. Glide includes a flexible API that allows developers to plug into almost any network stack. By default, Glide uses a custom HttpUrlConnection based stack but also includes utility libraries plug-in to Google’s Volley project or Square’s OkHttp library instead.

Glide.with(this).load("your-url-here").into(imageView);

Glide’s primary focus is on making scrolling any kind of a list of images as smooth and fast as possible, but Glide is also effective for almost any case where you need to fetch, resize, and display a remote image.

Glide Image Loading Library

Fresco by Facebook

Fresco is a powerful system for displaying images in Android applications.

Fresco takes care of image loading and display, so you don’t have to. It will load images from the network, local storage, or local resources, and display a placeholder until the image has arrived. It has two levels of cache; one in memory and another in internal storage.

Fresco Github

In Android 4.x and lower, Fresco puts images in a special region of Android memory. This lets your application run faster – and suffer the dreaded OutOfMemoryError much less often.

Fresco Documentation

Answer #7:

High-performance loader – after examining the methods suggested here, I used Ben’s solution with some changes –

  1. I realized that working with drawable is faster than with bitmaps so I uses drawable instead
  2. Using SoftReference is great, but it makes the cached image to be deleted too often, so I added a Linked list that holds images references, preventing the image to be deleted, until it reached a predefined size
  3. To open the InputStream I used java.net.URLConnection which allows me to use web cache (you need to set a response cache first, but that’s another story)

My code:

import java.util.Map; 
import java.util.HashMap; 
import java.util.LinkedList; 
import java.util.Collections; 
import java.util.WeakHashMap; 
import java.lang.ref.SoftReference; 
import java.util.concurrent.Executors; 
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService; 
import android.graphics.drawable.Drawable;
import android.widget.ImageView;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.MalformedURLException; 
import java.io.IOException; 
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;

public class DrawableBackgroundDownloader {    

private final Map<String, SoftReference<Drawable>> mCache = new HashMap<String, SoftReference<Drawable>>();   
private final LinkedList <Drawable> mChacheController = new LinkedList <Drawable> ();
private ExecutorService mThreadPool;  
private final Map<ImageView, String> mImageViews = Collections.synchronizedMap(new WeakHashMap<ImageView, String>());  

public static int MAX_CACHE_SIZE = 80; 
public int THREAD_POOL_SIZE = 3;

/**
 * Constructor
 */
public DrawableBackgroundDownloader() {  
    mThreadPool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(THREAD_POOL_SIZE);  
}  


/**
 * Clears all instance data and stops running threads
 */
public void Reset() {
    ExecutorService oldThreadPool = mThreadPool;
    mThreadPool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(THREAD_POOL_SIZE);
    oldThreadPool.shutdownNow();

    mChacheController.clear();
    mCache.clear();
    mImageViews.clear();
}  

public void loadDrawable(final String url, final ImageView imageView,Drawable placeholder) {  
    mImageViews.put(imageView, url);  
    Drawable drawable = getDrawableFromCache(url);  

    // check in UI thread, so no concurrency issues  
    if (drawable != null) {  
        //Log.d(null, "Item loaded from mCache: " + url);  
        imageView.setImageDrawable(drawable);  
    } else {  
        imageView.setImageDrawable(placeholder);  
        queueJob(url, imageView, placeholder);  
    }  
} 


private Drawable getDrawableFromCache(String url) {  
    if (mCache.containsKey(url)) {  
        return mCache.get(url).get();  
    }  

    return null;  
}

private synchronized void putDrawableInCache(String url,Drawable drawable) {  
    int chacheControllerSize = mChacheController.size();
    if (chacheControllerSize > MAX_CACHE_SIZE) 
        mChacheController.subList(0, MAX_CACHE_SIZE/2).clear();

    mChacheController.addLast(drawable);
    mCache.put(url, new SoftReference<Drawable>(drawable));

}  

private void queueJob(final String url, final ImageView imageView,final Drawable placeholder) {  
    /* Create handler in UI thread. */  
    final Handler handler = new Handler() {  
        @Override  
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {  
            String tag = mImageViews.get(imageView);  
            if (tag != null && tag.equals(url)) {
                if (imageView.isShown())
                    if (msg.obj != null) {
                        imageView.setImageDrawable((Drawable) msg.obj);  
                    } else {  
                        imageView.setImageDrawable(placeholder);  
                        //Log.d(null, "fail " + url);  
                    } 
            }  
        }  
    };  

    mThreadPool.submit(new Runnable() {  
        @Override  
        public void run() {  
            final Drawable bmp = downloadDrawable(url);
            // if the view is not visible anymore, the image will be ready for next time in cache
            if (imageView.isShown())
            {
                Message message = Message.obtain();  
                message.obj = bmp;
                //Log.d(null, "Item downloaded: " + url);  

                handler.sendMessage(message);
            }
        }  
    });  
}  



private Drawable downloadDrawable(String url) {  
    try {  
        InputStream is = getInputStream(url);

        Drawable drawable = Drawable.createFromStream(is, url);
        putDrawableInCache(url,drawable);  
        return drawable;  

    } catch (MalformedURLException e) {  
        e.printStackTrace();  
    } catch (IOException e) {  
        e.printStackTrace();  
    }  

    return null;  
}  


private InputStream getInputStream(String urlString) throws MalformedURLException, IOException {
    URL url = new URL(urlString);
    URLConnection connection;
    connection = url.openConnection();
    connection.setUseCaches(true); 
    connection.connect();
    InputStream response = connection.getInputStream();

    return response;
}
}

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Linux and Python enthusiast, in love with open source since 2014, Writer at programming-articles.com, India.

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